Robotic Surgery

da Vinci
Robotic Surgery

Today, with the development of technology, there has been a rapid change in the field of health. Many surgeries and interventions previously performed with open surgery have now been replaced by methods that we call minimally inva-sive and will affect the quality of life of the patient the least. Now, surgeries are performed by entering through natural cavities without small incisions or inci-sions.

If we look at historical development, laparoscopic surgical methods have be-come popular in urology as in many medical branches in the early 1990s. In this method, surgeries were performed with special tools from 3 holes of 1 cm opened from the abdomen. In the 2000s, robotic surgery started to be used rap-idly and with increasing acceleration, it is applied in many centers today. If we examine the beginning and development of robotic surgery; in fact, robotic sur-gery emerged as a result of the studies carried out by the US National Aero-nautics and Space Administration, as a result of the idea of operating astronauts working in space with a remote control by a surgeon on Earth. Briefly, it is the process of performing some surgeries by entering through small holes with spe-cial tools without making large incisions.

How Does Robotic Surgery System Work?

The robotic surgical system basically consists of 3 parts. This robotic system is known all over the world as da Vinci Robotic Surgery system. The first piece is the robot arms attached to the channels we call port after 8mm holes are drilled on the patient, just like in laparoscopy. The second part is the part where the camera and electronic systems are located. The third part is the part called the console where the robot arms are managed by the surgeon. The surgeon who will perform the surgery sits on the console and controls the robot arms in the patient. The surgeon performs the operation by transferring the movements he/she wants to make to the robot arms in the console.

In Which Surgeries Is Robotic Surgery Used?

It is used in gynecology, otolaryngology, general surgery, thoracic surgery and cardiovascular surgery, especially in urology. The most widely used area in the world is the surgical treatment of urological diseases. It is widely used especially in the treatment of prostate cancer. In the USA, approximately 90% of prostate cancer surgeries are performed robotically. Major surgeries performed in urolo-gy with robotic surgery; radical prostatectomy, radical cystectomy, radical ne-phrectomy, partial nephrectomy, radical nephroureterectomy, pyeloplasty, kid-ney transplantation, adrenalectomy, sacrocolpopexy, prostate adenome tomia, retroperitoneal lymph mode steering, reconstructive surgeries (artificial bladder, ureteroneocystostomy, bladder augmentation, etc.)

What are the Advantages of Robotic Surgery?

The main advantages of robotic surgery are that it allows 10-12 x times magnification and higher quality 3D image, allows to imitate wrist movements without 540 degrees of tremor, and allows the finest and sensitive movements to be made at the deepest points in the human body with a sense of depth. In addition to the advantages that robotic surgery provides to the patient, it also provides many advantages to the surgeon due to these features. During the surgery, suturing is easier, bleeding is less common, and easier procedures are performed in the narrow area.  In addition, anatomical structures are more detailed and clear. Another advantage is that the surgeon can perform the surgery for a long time without getting tired at maximum concentration by sitting down. Pain is less felt and cosmetic appearance is better after surgeries performed with smaller incisions and less bleeding for patients. Patients go through the recovery period faster and return to social and professional life in a short time. They become able to do their daily activities in a short time.